Diabetes

Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Remedies




Diabetes Treatment Remedies

 

The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

Pathology

There are 2 types of chronic diabetes conditions: type1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes typically appears during childhood or adolescence.

Type 2 is the more common form of diabetes, and can develop at any age.

Type 2 diabetes develops most often in people over 40 years of age.

In type 1 diabetes the pancreas is no longer able to produce enough insulin to control the levels of glucose in the bloodstream.

Type 1 diabetes appears to be related to a person's immune system attacking the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying them so they can no longer produce enough insulin.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can still make insulin but your cells resist the action of insulin, so glucose accumulates in the bloodstream.

In type 2 diabetes the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome the cells' resistance.

People with prediabetes have blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

Pregnant women may have gestational diabetes, but this type of diabetes often resolves once the baby is delivered.

Causes

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown.

Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and unknown environmental factors

Type 2 diabetes is strongly linked to obesity, but not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight.

Hormones produced by the placenta to maintain a normal pregnancy also make a woman's cells more resistant to the actions of insulin.

Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who are not able to produce enough extra insulin to overcome the insulin resistance caused by pregnancy hormones.

The risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 1 diabetes.

Exposure to a viral illness likely plays some role in the development of type 1 diabetes.

Family members of people with type 1 diabetes who have diabetes autoantibodies have an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes themselves.

Dietary factors, such as low vitamin D consumption, early exposure to cow's milk or cow's milk formula, and exposure to cereals before 4 months of age are associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes.

Age is a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, because as you get older you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight.

Excess body weight contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes because the more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant cells are to the actions of insulin.

Inactivity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes because physical activity helps control your weight and uses they glucose by converting it into energy.

Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, characterized by hormone imbalances that cause irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

High blood pressure may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good" cholesterol) are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.

People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms

Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated.

Symptoms in type 1diabetes tend to come on quickly and are more severe.

People with type 2 diabetes develop symptoms more gradually, and may not have any symptoms initially.

People with type 1 diabetes may experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a metabolic problem with symptoms that include nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

Other symproms of type 1 diabetes are acetone-smelling breath and in severe cases decreased levels of consciousness.

People who have uncontrolled diabetes (high blood glucose levels) can develop serious and sometimes life-threatening complications such as heart disease, kidney problems, nerve damage and eye problems.

Diabetic neuropathy is a complication of poorly controlled diabetes and has symptoms of numbness, tingling, pain and altered pain sensation.

Diagnosis

In type 1 diabetes, the sudden appearance of symptoms is often the reason for checking blood sugar levels.

The diagnosis of any type of diabetes includes measuring the levels of glucose in the bloodstream.

Because the symptoms of type 2 diabetes evolve more gradually, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines.

The ADA recommends that anyone with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 who has additional risk factors for diabetes should be screened for diabetes.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes that should prompt screening tests include high blood sugar, sedentary lifestyle, history of gestational diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of heart disease and family history of diabetes.

The ADA recommends that anyone older than age 45 should receive an initial blood glucose screening test; if the results of normal, they should be tested for glucose every 3 years after that.

The most reliable diabetes screening test is the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.

The A1C screening test for diabetes determines a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months.

The A1C screening test for diabetes measures the percentage of blood glucose that is attached to the hemoglobin in your blood.

An A1C level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests confirms the diagnosis of diabetes.

An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4% indicates prediabetes.

An A1C level below 5.7 is considered normal, and indicates that a person does not have diabetes.

A random blood glucose level test is also used to diagnose diabetes.

A random blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in the blood at a random time, regardless of when you last ate.

A random blood glucose level of 200mg/dL or higher suggests the diagnosis of diabetes.

A fasting blood glucose test uses a blood sample that is drawn after an overnight fast.

The following indicates the significance of the results of a fasting blood glucose test: (Less then 100mg/dL = normal) (100 to 125mg/dL = prediabetes) (126mg/dL or higher on two separate tests = diabetes)

The oral glucose tolerance test measures your body's response to changing blood sugar levels.

For an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting blood glucose level is measured, then measured again following consumption of a sugary liquid drink. After the sugar drink the blood sugar levels are tested periodically over the next 2 hours.

The significance of the results of an oral glucose tolerance test are as follows: ( Less then 140mg/dL = normal) (140-199mg/dL = prediabetes) (200 mg/dL or higher = diabetes)

If your doctor suspects type 1 diabetes, your urine will be examined for the presence of ketones, a byproduct of the use of muscle and fat for energy.

People with type 1 diabetes may have ketones in their urine because they have been using muscle and fat tissue for energy when there is not enough glucose in the bloodstream.

If your doctor suspects type 1 diabetes you may also be tested for the presence of destructive immune cells, called autoantibodies.

The diagnosis of gestational diabetes rests on an initial glucose challenge test followed by additional glucose tolerance testing if the initial screening shows high glucose levels.

Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic disease with no known cure except in very specific situations.

Treatment of diabetes consists of managing blood glucose levels and monitoring symptoms.

Euglycemia is the term used to describe normal glucose levels, while hypoglycemia refers to glucose levels that are below normal.

In most cases of any type of diabetes, diet, exercise and use of appropriate medications can keep blood glucose level in the normal range.

Type 1 diabetes is typically treated with combinations of regular (faster acting) and NPH insulin (a specific form of intermediate-acting insulin) or synthetic insulin analogs.

NPH insulin may be combined with faster acting insulin to treat type 2 diabetes, to allow more accurate dosing and better blood glucose control.

NPH insulin is cloudy, while the faster-acting insulin is clear.

Metformin is recommended as a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Metformin is a diabetes medication that works by decreasing the amount of glucose that is absorbed from food and decreasing the amount of glucose made by the liver.

Prevention

Physical activity helps prevent type 2 diabetes because it makes cells more sensitive to insulin

Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented.

Eating healthy foods, exercising more and losing weight help prevent type 2 diabetes.

Choosing foods that are lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber help prevent type 2 diabetes.

To help prevent type 2 diabetes, eat a variety of healthy foods, focusing on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity a day can help prevent type 2 diabetes.

Brisk daily walks, bike riding and lap swimming are examples of moderate level activity that can help prevent type 2 diabetes.

If you can't fit in a long workout, try to incorporate shorter sessions of increased activity throughout each day to keep your body healthy and reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

For people who are overweight, losing even 7% of their body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes.

Permanent changes in eating and exercise habits are the best way to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.

Some oral diabetes medications may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but healthy lifestyle choices are still an important part of the prevention plan.

Statistics & Facts

Certain countries, such as Finland and Sweden, have higher rates of type 1 diabetes.

Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans all have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically among children, adolescents and younger adults.

A woman who developed gestational diabetes during a pregnancy has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

A woman who has given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Women older than age 25 are at an increased risk for developing gestational diabetes.

Being overweight before pregnancy increases the risk of gestational diabetes.

Women who are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

As of 2013, 382 million people have diabetes worldwide.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of diabetes cases.

Type 2 diabetes is more common in developed countries.

The word diabetes literally means "to pass through", due to the excessive flow of urine associated with the disease.

About 75% of deaths in people with diabetes are due to coronary artery disease.



Diabetes Treatment Remedies plus




The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

Pathology

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose).

Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues.

Glucose is your brain's main source of fuel.

People with diabetes have too much glucose in their blood.

People with diabetes either have insufficient insulin, or their cells are resistant to insulin; this results in accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream.

Insulin is a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas and acts to move glucose from the bloodstream into cells.

Insulin lowers the amount of glucose in the bloodstream, because it helps the glucose move out of the bloodstream and into cells.

Symptoms

People who have diabetes may find that they are drinking more fluids than they normally do, or are more thirsty than usual.

People who have diabetes may urinate more frequently.

Sometimes people with diabetes experience extreme feelings of hunger.

Unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of diabetes.

People with diabetes may experience fatigue, or get tired easily.

Some people with diabetes may be more irritable than normal.

Blurred vision can be a symptom of diabetes.

People with diabetes may notice that their sores are slower to heal.

Some people with diabetes have frequent infections, such as gum, skin or vaginal infections.

Treatment

Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and participating in regular physical activities are important factors in managing diabetes.

The goal of diabetes management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible, without causing levels to drop to low.

Insulin injections are used to treat type 1 diabetes, while oral medications are primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes.

The goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain a HbA1C level of 6.5%; however, the A1C should not be less than that, and some the level may be set higher for some patients.



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