Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Remedies

Insomnia Treatment Remedies


The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

More about Insomnia

Insomnia is considered chronic by some when it lasts a month. Others say three to six months.

Primary insomnia can be a self-fulfilling prophecy in which someone with transient insomnia begins to worry about falling asleep, causing more sleepless nights, which leads to more worrying and more insomnia.

If the ability to fall and stay asleep is the product of a struggle between arousal and sleepiness, maybe the problem with some insomniacs is not insufficient sleepiness, but too much arousal. There is scientific evidence for this idea, although it is still unclear. Studies of the brains of depressed people show they don’t shift down as much during sleep as healthy persons’ brains do (as measured by glucose use in the frontal lobe.)

Levels of stress hormones (such as cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor) are also elevated in many insomniacs, which could be the cause or the effect of the insomnia, and the overall metabolic rate is higher even during the daytime in people with insomnia

People with primary insomnia in general have EEG readings in Stage 2 that show “lower delta and greater alpha, sigma, and beta” waves compared to healthy sleepers. In insomniacs where the cause is known (secondary insomnia), this difference is not apparent in the EEG.

Patients with chronic primary insomnia are now considered to be in a state of hyperarousal. The hyperarousal happens all through the day. In addition to having trouble sleeping, they may be anxious. They are more alert than good sleepers and have higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

Adrenocorricotropic hormone levels are also higher than normal, especially in the evening and first half of the night.

Investigators trying to understand the pathophysiology of sleep continue to focus on hyperarousal. In major depressive disorders, there is abnormal regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor CRF. Altered regulation of CRF, hyperarousal and sleep disturbances occur both in patients with insomnia and depressed patients.

There seems to be a strong correlation between cortisol levels and sleep disruption or fragmentation. Researchers think that chemical events in the brain also cause release of norepinephrine, which may also be disrupting sleep.

Other investigators have found that patients with chronic insomnia have lower nocturnal levels of melatonin. Melatonin, a hormone produced in the pineal gland, is part of the regulation of circadian rhythm. When melatonin levels increase, sleepiness occurs. Not only do patients with insomnia have lower melatonin levels, the levels are more disturbed the longer the patients have trouble sleeping.

Insomnia Symptoms

Difficulty falling asleep at night.

Awake for much of the night.

Tossing and turning while trying to fall asleep.

Feel as if you haven't slept at all.

Not feeling well rested after a night's sleep.

Daytime tiredness or sleepiness.

Irritability, depression or anxiety.

Difficulty paying attention, focusing on tasks or remembering.

Increased errors or accidents.

Tension headaches.

Distress in the stomach and intestines. (gastrointestinal tract)

Become so worried about or focused on being able to fall asleep that the worry and attention interferes with being able to fall asleep.

Wake up too early in the morning.

Difficulty falling asleep despite being tired.

Trouble getting back to sleep when awakened.

Exhausting sleep.

Relying on sleeping pills or alcohol to fall asleep.

Extreme mood changes or irritability.

Lack of energy or motivation.

Poor performance at school or work.

Tension, headaches or stomach aches.

Insomnia also can affect your daily activities and cause serious problems. For example, you may feel drowsy while driving. Driver sleepiness (not related to alcohol) is responsible for almost 20 percent of all serious car crash injuries. Research also shows that insomnia raises older women’s risk of falling.

Also, poor sleep may be a sign of other health problems. Finding and treating those problems could improve your overall health and sleep.

Insomnia Causes

Emotional issues such as stress, anxiety, and depression cause half of all insomnia cases. But your daytime habits, sleep routine, and physical health may also play a role. Try to identify all possible causes of your insomnia. Once you figure out the root cause, you can tailor treatment accordingly.

Anxiety. Everyday anxieties as well as more-serious anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, may disrupt your asleep. Worry about being able to go to sleep can make it harder to fall asleep.

Depression. You might either sleep too much or have trouble sleeping if you're depressed. Insomnia often occurs with other mental health disorders as well.

Change in your environment or work schedule. Travel or working a late or early shift can disrupt your body's circadian rhythms, making it difficult to sleep. Your circadian rhythms act as an internal clock, guiding such things as your sleep-wake cycle, metabolism and body temperature.

Poor sleep habits. Poor sleep habits include an irregular sleep schedule, stimulating activities before bed, an uncomfortable sleep environment, and use of your bed for activities other than sleep or sex.

A change in sleep patterns. Sleep often becomes less restful as you age, and you may find that noise or other changes in your environment are more likely to wake you. With age, your internal clock often advances, which means you get tired earlier in the evening and wake up earlier in the morning. But older people generally still need the same amount of sleep as younger people do.

A change in activity. You may be less physically or socially active. A lack of activity can interfere with a good night's sleep. Also, the less active you are, the more likely you may be to take a daily nap, which can interfere with sleep at night.

A change in health. The chronic pain of conditions such as arthritis or back problems as well as depression, anxiety and stress can interfere with sleep. Older men often develop noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia), which can cause the need to urinate frequently, interrupting sleep. In women, menopausal hot flashes can be equally disruptive.

Other sleep-related disorders, such as sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome, also become more common with age. Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathing periodically throughout the night. Restless legs syndrome causes unpleasant sensations in your legs and an almost irresistible desire to move them, which may prevent you from falling asleep.

Older people typically use more prescription drugs than younger people do, which increases the chance of insomnia caused by a medication.

Sleep problems may be a concern for children and teenagers as well. However, some children and teens simply have trouble getting to sleep or resist a regular bedtime because their internal clocks are more delayed. They want to go to bed later and sleep later in the morning.

Sometimes, insomnia only lasts a few days and goes away on its own, especially when the insomnia is tied to an obvious temporary cause, such as stress over an upcoming presentation, a painful breakup, or jet lag.

Other times, insomnia is stubbornly persistent. Chronic insomnia is usually tied to an underlying mental or physical issue.

Psychological problems that can cause insomnia: depression, anxiety, chronic stress, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder.

Medical problems that can cause insomnia: asthma, allergies, Parkinson’s disease, hyperthyroidism, acid reflux, kidney disease, cancer, chronic pain.

Sleep disorders that can cause insomnia: sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome.

Medications that can cause insomnia: antidepressants; cold and flu medications that contain alcohol; pain relievers that contain caffeine (Midol, Excedrin); diuretics, corticosteroids, thyroid hormone, high blood pressure medications.

The following is a list of medications that can cause Insomnia:

Corticosteroids - used for treating patients with allergic reactions, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammation of the muscles and blood vessels. Examples include: prednisone, triamcinolone, methylprednisolone and cortisone.

Statins - medications used for treating high cholesterol levels. Examples include: simvastatin, rosuvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin.

Alpha blockers - used for treating hypertension (high blood pressure, Raynaud's disease and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Examples include: terazosin, silodosin, alfuzosin, prazosin, doxazosin and tamsulosin.

Beta blockers - used for treating hypertension and irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias). Examples include: timolol, carvedilol, propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol and sotalol.

SSRI antidepressants - used for treating depression. Examples include: fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and fluvoxamine.

ACE inhibitors - used for the treatment of hypertension, and other heart conditions. Examples include: ramipril, fosinopril, trandolapril, quinapril, benazepril, enalapril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril and captopril.

ARBs (Angiotensin II-receptor blockers) - used when the patient cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors or has type 2 diabetes or kidney disease from diabetes. Examples include: candesartan, valsartan, telmisartan, losartan and irbesartan.

Cholinesterase inhibitors - used for treating memory loss and other symptoms for patients with dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Examples include: rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine.

2nd generation (non-sedating) H1 agonists - used for treating allergic reactions. Examples include: loratadine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine and azelastine.

Glucosamine/chondroitin - dietary supplements used for relieving the symptoms of joint pain and to reduce inflammation.

Insomnia Treatment

Insomnia is a common problem characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep or getting restful sleep, despite the opportunity for adequate sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, often called CBT-I, is an effective insomnia treatment for chronic sleep problems.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is a structured program that helps you identify and replace thoughts and behaviors that cause or worsen sleep problems with habits that promote sound sleep. Unlike sleeping pills, CBT-I helps you overcome the underlying causes of your sleep problems.

Stimulus control therapy. This method helps remove factors that condition the mind to resist sleep. For example, you might be coached to set a consistent bedtime and wake time and avoid naps, use the bed only for sleep and sex, and leave the bedroom if you can't go to sleep within 20 minutes, only returning when you're sleepy.

Sleep restriction. Lying in bed when you're awake can become a habit that leads to poor sleep. This treatment decreases the time you spend in bed, causing partial sleep deprivation, which makes you more tired the next night. Once your sleep has improved, your time in bed is gradually increased.

Sleep hygiene. This method of therapy involves changing basic lifestyle habits that influence sleep, such as smoking or drinking too much caffeine late in the day, drinking too much alcohol, or not getting regular exercise. It also includes tips that help you sleep better, such as ways to wind down an hour or two before bedtime.

Sleep environment improvement. This offers ways that you can create a comfortable sleep environment, such as keeping your bedroom quiet, dark and cool, not having a TV in the bedroom, and hiding the clock from view.

Relaxation training. This method helps you calm your mind and body. Approaches include meditation, imagery, muscle relaxation and others.

Remaining passively awake. Also called paradoxical intention, this involves avoiding any effort to fall asleep. Paradoxically, worrying that you can't sleep can actually keep you awake. Letting go of this worry can help you relax and make it easier to fall asleep.

Biofeedback. This method allows you to observe biological signs such as heart rate and muscle tension and shows you how to adjust them. Your sleep specialist may have you take a biofeedback device home to record your daily patterns. This information can help identify patterns that affect sleep.

Behavior and lifestyle changes are often the first treatment approaches for insomnia.

Getting ready for bed means more than turning down the sheets. Sleep experts know that there are many things that affect how well you sleep. Behavior and lifestyle changes improve overall sleep quality and the time it takes to fall asleep-without the side effects of sleep medicines. Perhaps most important, these improvements last over time.

Healthy thinking is a way to help you stay well or cope with a health problem by changing how you think. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of counseling that can help you understand why you have sleep problems and can show you how to deal with them. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps reduce interrupted sleep over time.

Don’t read from a backlit device (such as an iPad). If you use an eReader, opt for one that is not backlit, i.e. one that requires an additional light source.

Limit caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. Stop drinking caffeinated beverages at least eight hours before bed. Avoid drinking alcohol in the evening; while alcohol can make you feel sleepy, it interferes with the quality of your sleep. Quit smoking or avoid it at night, as nicotine is a stimulant.

Lifestyle changes are simple things you can do that may help you sleep better. These include changing your sleep area or schedule, watching what and when you eat and drink, and being more active. It's also important to keep regular bedtimes and wake times-7 days a week-and to try to avoid taking naps during the day.

Relaxation exercises, such as progressive muscle relaxation, may help you if you lie in bed with your mind racing.

The following is a list of medications used in treatment of insomnia:

Advil PM (generic name: diphenhydramine/ibuprofen class: analgesic combinations)

Ambien (generic name: zolpidem class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Ambien CR (generic name: zolpidem class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Ativan (generic name: lorazepam class: benzodiazepine anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, miscellaneous antiemetics)

Belsomra (generic name: suvorexant class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Dalmane (generic name: flurazepam class: benzodiazepines)

Elavil (generic name: amitriptyline class: tricyclic antidepressants)

Halcion (generic name: triazolam class: benzodiazepines)

Lunesta (generic name: eszopiclone class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Prosom (generic name: estazolam class: benzodiazepines)

Restoril (generic name: temazepam class: benzodiazepines)

Rozerem (generic name: ramelteon class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Silenor (generic name: doxepin class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics, tricyclic antidepressants)

Sonata (generic name: zaleplon class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Tylenol PM (generic name: acetaminophen/diphenhydramine class: analgesic combinations)

Unisom SleepTabs (generic name: doxylamine class: miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics)

Zyprexa (generic name: olanzapine class: atypical antipsychotics)

Zyprexa Zydis (generic name: olanzapine class: atypical antipsychotics)

Insomnia Prevention

It's important to stick to regular periods of wakefulness and sleep. When possible, try to go to bed and get up at the same time every day.

Try not to take naps during the day, and if a daytime nap is needed, keep it under 30 minutes in the early afternoon.

Don't stay in bed when you're not sleeping.

Resist the urge to linger in bed if you wake up feeling rested.

If you can't sleep, don't lie there staring at the ceiling for hours on end; instead, if it's been more than 15 minutes of sleeplessness, get out of bed and do something relaxing, such as meditation or reading, until you feel sleepy.

Try taking a warm bath or have your partner give you a massage before going to bed. You can also create a soothing bedtime ritual such as listening to soft music, doing gentle yoga, or reading. Acupuncture is also thought to help many people relax.

Make your bedroom conducive to sleep. Keep the TV or computer in another room. Close the door when you go to sleep and run a fan (if you like) to help eliminate outside noises. Keep your bedroom cooler at night than in the day, and as dark as possible.

Work out during the day.

Exercise for 20-30 minutes every day, 5 hours or more before bedtime. Regular exercise has many proven benefits on overall health, and is thought to relax the body and encourage a good night's sleep.

Caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine can all inhibit sleep. Caffeinated drinks, like coffee and soft drinks, are stimulants that can disrupt sleep. Avoid drinking coffee or any caffeine in the afternoon. Nicotine in tobacco is another stimulant that can inhibit sleep.

Avoid drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Alcohol is a sedative that may induce sleep initially, but it prevents deeper stages of sleep and doesn't allow the body to fully rest.

Skip late-night snacks and meals.

Maintain a healthy diet, and avoid foods that are high in saturated fat, which may cause heartburn and indigestion. These foods can be hard to digest, particularly when eaten late at night, and make it difficult to sleep.

A painful condition of any type can prevent sleep. Restless leg syndrome is a common culprit of insomnia, as is chronic pain. Make sure you talk to your doctor about any pain you are experiencing, and be sure any pain reliever you take is effective enough to let you sleep through the night.

Also be aware of prescription and non-prescription pain-relievers that can keep you up at night. Many drugs have caffeine or other stimulants in them, which can cause insomnia.

You can set your alarm so you'll know when to get up, but otherwise hide the clocks in the bedroom. The less you know what time it is—particularly when you wake in the middle of night—the better you're likely to sleep.

In order to eliminate insomnia, it's important to determine whether or not an underlying issue or medical condition is causing the problem. Most cases of insomnia are a result of some other factor such as stress, mood disorders, or a medical condition.

Be sure to talk to your doctor about any underlying conditions that may be interfering with your sleep. Many times when these conditions are successfully treated, sleep patterns return to normal.

Insomnia Statistics & Facts

People today sleep 20% less than they did 100 years ago.

More than 30% of the population suffers from insomnia.

One in three people suffer from some form of insomnia during their lifetime.

More than half of Americans lose sleep due to stress and/or anxiety.

Between 40% and 60% of people over the age of 60 suffer from insomnia.

Women are up to twice as likely to suffer from insomnia than men.

Approximately 35% of insomniacs have a family history of insomnia.

90% of people who suffer from depression also experience insomnia.

Approximately 10 million people in the U.S. use prescription sleep aids.

People who suffer from sleep deprivation are 27% more likely to become overweight or obese. There is also a link between weight gain and sleep apnea.

A National Sleep Foundation Poll shows that 60% of people have driven while feeling sleepy (and 37% admit to having fallen asleep at the wheel) in the past year.

A recent Consumer Reports survey showed the top reason couples gave for avoiding sex was "too tired or need sleep."

The data surrounding insomnia aren't confined to the relationship between insomnia and health. This sleep disorder costs government and industry billions of dollars a year.

The Institute of Medicine estimates that hundreds of billions of dollars are spent annually on medical costs that are directly related to sleep disorders.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration statistics show that 100,000 vehicle accidents occur annually drowsy driving. An estimated 1,500 die each year in these collisions.

Employers spend approximately $3,200 more in health care costs on employees with sleep problems than for those who sleep well.

According to the US Surgeon General, insomnia costs the U.S. Government more than $15 billion per year in health care costs.

Statistics also show that US industry loses about $150 billion each year because of sleep deprived workers. This takes into account absenteeism and lost productivity.

Insomnia Treatment Remedies plus

The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

What is Insomnia?

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder. People who have insomnia have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. As a result, they may get too little sleep or have poor-quality sleep. They may not feel refreshed when they wake up.

The official medical designation for insomnia is DIMS – difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep.

If the insomnia can be traced to another condition or disease that results in sleep disturbance as a symptom or side effect, it is called "secondary insomnia".

Primary insomnia is when there is no obvious or apparent cause – the insomnia is the disease or disorder itself. Some would say there is no such thing as primary insomnia and that DIMS is always the result of another disorder.

Regardless, insomniacs and their doctors often see insomnia as the main source of discomfort and it is worth looking into the physiological underpinnings of insomnia.

Insomnia Symptoms

The main symptom of insomnia is trouble falling or staying asleep, which leads to lack of sleep.

Have trouble falling asleep. This can mean lying in bed for up to an hour or more, tossing and turning, waiting to fall asleep.

Sleep for only short periods of time. Waking up frequently during the night. Having a hard time falling back asleep after you wake up.

The lack of sleep can cause other symptoms. You may wake up feeling tired or not well-rested, and you may feel tired during the day.

You also may have trouble focusing on tasks. Insomnia can cause you to feel anxious, depressed, or irritable.

Insomnia Causes

Stress. Concerns about work, school, health or family can keep your mind active at night, making it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events, such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or a job loss, may lead to insomnia.

Medical conditions. If you have chronic pain, breathing difficulties or a need to urinate frequently, you might develop insomnia. Examples of conditions linked with insomnia include arthritis, cancer, heart failure, lung disease, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), overactive thyroid, stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

Medications. Many prescription drugs can interfere with sleep, including some antidepressants, heart and blood pressure medications, allergy medications, stimulants (such as Ritalin), and corticosteroids. Many over-the-counter (OTC) medications — including some pain medication combinations, decongestants and weight-loss products — contain caffeine and other stimulants.

Caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Coffee, tea, cola and other caffeine-containing drinks are well-known stimulants. Drinking coffee in the late afternoon and later can keep you from falling asleep at night. Nicotine in tobacco products is another stimulant that can cause insomnia. Alcohol is a sedative that may help you fall asleep, but it prevents deeper stages of sleep and often causes you to awaken in the middle of the night.

Eating too much late in the evening. Having a light snack before bedtime is OK, but eating too much may cause you to feel physically uncomfortable while lying down, making it difficult to get to sleep. Many people also experience heartburn, a backflow of acid and food from the stomach into the esophagus after eating, which may keep you awake.

Insomnia Treatment

Make sure your bedroom is quiet, dark, and cool. Noise, light, and heat can interfere with sleep. Try using a sound machine or earplugs to hide outside noise, an open window or fan to keep the room cool, and blackout curtains or a sleep mask to block out light.

Stick to a regular sleep schedule. Support your biological clock by going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, including weekends, even if you’re tired. This will help you get back in a regular sleep rhythm.

Avoid naps. Napping during the day can make it more difficult to sleep at night. If you feel like you have to take a nap, limit it to 30 minutes before 3 p.m.

Avoid stimulating activity and stressful situations before bedtime. This includes vigorous exercise; big discussions or arguments; and TV, computer, or video game use. Instead, focus on quiet, soothing activities, such as reading, knitting, or listening to soft music, while keeping lights low.

In some cases, taking sleeping pills for a short time helps you get some rest, while behavior and lifestyle changes can help you over the long term. Doctors recommend taking sleep medicines only now and then or only for a short time. They are not the first choice for treating chronic insomnia.

Many sleep medicines cause side effects, such as low blood pressure, anxiety, and nausea. These medicines also may become less effective when your body gets used to them and may cause withdrawal symptoms when you stop using them.

For a list of the top 20 medications used to treat insomnia, please go back and unlock all insomnia health tips.

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