Ovarian Cyst

Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Remedies

Ovarian Cyst Treatment Remedies


The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

What are Ovarian Cysts?

The ovaries are small oval like structures and located on either side of the uterus in women.

A woman’s ovaries are responsible for creating hormones, including estrogen which triggers menstruation each month.

One of the two ovaries will release an egg, which then travels down the fallopian tube ready to be fertilized.

The egg makes its way down the fallopian tube to potentially be fertilized.

This cycle is referred to as ovulation.

The ovaries are the main drivers for female body development, mainly the breasts, body shape, and body hair.

Another name for the ovaries is the female gonad.

Ovarian cysts are incredibly common in women post-puberty.

Cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs, develop on the ovary.

Scientists have discovered that women, especially of black ethnic origin, with ovarian cysts have a greatly reduced risk of developing breast cancer.

The exact reasons for this correlation are unclear.

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

Should a cyst rupture and spill its contents into the cavity, then symptoms are likely to manifest.

Very large cysts are more likely to have symptoms associated with them.

If the blood supply to the ovaries is blocked by a cyst, then this will cause some symptoms.

Having ovarian cysts may result in pain occurring within the pelvic region during sexual intercourse.

If you suffer from an ovarian cyst, it may be harder to empty your bowels.

One of the more common symptoms of a cyst on the ovaries is a change to the menstrual cycle.

You may suffer from indigestion more frequently if you have a cyst on your ovaries.

Lightheadedness or dizziness may be a consequence of an ovarian cyst.

Some individuals suffer from extreme fatigue if they have cysts on their ovaries.

Symptoms just the symptoms experienced with morning sickness in early pregnancy may manifest in someone with an ovarian cyst.

The breasts may become tender if you have an ovarian cyst.

Although extremely rare, it is vital that you seek immediate medical help if you start to experience sudden and severe abdominal and/or pelvic pain.

Any pain that is accompanied by fever and vomiting must be investigated immediately by a medical professional.

If you start to experience symptoms of shock, such as going cold, having clammy skin, rapid breathing and/or weakness, it is a medical emergency and you need to go to hospital for immediate treatment.

Ovarian Cyst Causes

There are numerous reasons that may be responsible for causing the formation of cysts.

Folicular cysts may contain blood, due to leakage from the egg sac.

A corpus luteum cyst is less common but just like a follicular cyst, they are related to the menstrual cycle.

The corpus luteum is the area of tissue that remains following the release of an egg into the fallopian tube.

A cyst occurs when the structure fills with fluid or blood.

They are generally only found on one side of the ovary and do not cause any symptoms.

In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), many small cysts present on both ovaries.

This syndrome does have symptoms as the cysts tend to cause hormonal problems.

Tumors, of either a malignant or benign nature, may be cystic.

In extremely rare cases, the cysts can grow other bodily tissues such as teeth or hair.

This is called a denign cystic teratoma or dermoid cyst.

Pelvic inflammation can something involve the ovaries.

In the most severe cases, pus-filled cysts may form on the ovary and these are known as tubo-ovarian abscesses.

Endometriosis may have cysts associated with it, as the condition is characterised as that that normally grow in the lining of the womb growing elsewhere, the ovaries being an example of such a place.

In endometriosis involving the ovaries, tissue may grow and bleed over a period of time, forming a cyst with brown-colored contents called an endometrioma, or in layman’s terms a chocolate cyst.

Using the progesterone only contraceptive may increase some women’s chances of suffering from an ovarian cyst.

Ovarian Cyst Diagnosis

The majority of ovarian cysts go undiagnosed because they rarely cause any symptoms.

Sometimes, an ovarian cyst will be discovered by chance whilst examining for another problem in the same region.

An example of this is the use of ultrasound during a pelvic examination, for an unrelated reason, leading to the identification of a cyst on the ovary.

If you present with symptoms that are likely to be caused by an ovarian cyst, you will probably be referred to a specialist gynaecologist.

One of the first diagnostics performed is a vaginal examination to ensure that other potential causes of the symptoms, such as abnormal swelling, are ruled out.

The most common diagnostic tool used for ovarian cysts is an ultrasound scan.

Also used on expecting mothers, an ultrasound scan uses high frequency sound waves to compose an image of the inside of your body.

To perform the scan, a doctor will place a small prove on your abdomen to allow him/her to scan your ovaries.

For a more thorough examination, a small tube shaped probe may be inserted into your vagina to also scan the ovaries from a different angle.

Ultrasound scans can not only confirm the presence of an ovarian cyst, but they are also able to determine its size.

If the ultrasound reveals a cyst that is partially solid in its nature, then a doctor may refer you for a further blood test.

Blood tests to diagnose the type of ovarian cyst look at the levels of a protein called CA125, something that is often elevated in individuals with ovarian cancer.

Blood results indicating a higher than normal level of CA125 does not necessarily mean you have ovarian cancer.

Levels fluctuate from person to person, and can be influenced by other conditions, such as endometriosis and tuberculosis.

Ovarian Cyst Treatment

Quite often, doctors will decide it is best to “watchfully wait” and not intervene with the cyst until it is absolutely necessary.

This is because many cysts just disappear after several weeks.

In post-menopausal women, a doctor will perform regular ultrasound and blood tests to rule out ovarian cancer because of the higher probability.

If a cyst is especially large, surgery will usually be required to remove it.

The cyst doesn’t always have to be causing symptoms, as it can be difficult to tell by scans what type the cyst is without microscopic examination.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure ideal for removing smaller cysts.

Carried out under general anaesthetic, this is a form of keyhole surgery where a series of small cuts are made into your lower abdomen and gas is injected into the pelvic region to lift the wall away from the organs.

A laparscope, being a small tube-like microscope with a light, is inserted so the internal organs can be examined. The surgeon will then be able to remove the cyst.

Following removal of the cyst, the tiny cuts are closed with dissolvable stitches.

The laparoscopy operation usually takes no more than one hour.

Often, women are able to go home the same day.

The laparoscopy is the preferred surgical technique to used as it causes the least amount of pain and inconvenience.

In some cases, such as if the cyst is cancerous, a laparoscopy will not be recommended.

Instead, the surgeon will perform a laparotomy. This is a far more invasive procedure.

In a laparotomy, the surgeon will make a large incision, either on the bikini line or slightly higher up, to give better access to the cyst.

Generally, the whole ovary is removed along with the cyst and sent to a laboratory for examination. Stitches or staples are used to close the wound.

Following a laparotomy, a catheter may be required for draining urine from the bladder and a drip, to maintain sugar levels and administer medications.

You will most likely be hospilised for a few days after the operation.

If you need to have one of your ovaries removed, the remaining ovary will still function as normal.

There may be a slight reduction in your fertility, but it should still be possible to conceive.

The removal of both ovaries however will trigger an early menopause.

It may still be possible to have a child, however assistive reproduction will be required.

As post-menopausal women have a highly higher chance of developing ovarian cancer, this must also be taken into account in the treatment plan.

The surgeon will always aim to preserve as much of the reproductive system as possible.

Attempts will always be made to preserve the ovary and fallopian tube, meaning fertility will not be too affected.

Pathology results may take up to a month to come back.

Therefore, a further appointment to discuss these results will be arranged.

If laboratory tests show that a cyst is cancerous, more drastic measures may need to be taken.

It sometimes is a necessity in these cases to remove both of the ovaries, the womb and some of the tissue surrounding these structures.

This would trigger an early menopause and mean you are infertile.

If polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the diagnosed cause for your symptoms, then it cannot be cured although it can be managed.

The treatment plan may vary as each person with PCOS will experience different symptoms.

Being overweight is often a common problem in women with PCOS.

Weight loss can greatly improve the symptoms, with just 5% decrease in weight making a huge improvement.

A BMI of over 25 is considered to be overweight. Changes should be made to both your diet, such as increasing the quantity of fruit, vegatables and whole foods you consume, and through exercise.

Sometimes, a medicinal approach will be the most appropriate.

If periods are irregular or absent, the contraceptive pill may be recommended to regulate the cycle and cause the periods to return to normal.

Progesterone, a female hormone, does this if given either regularly or intermittently.

This will also reduce the risk of cancer of the womb lining, caused by a lack of periods.

Sometimes, women with PCOS may struggle to get pregnant. If this is the case, a fertility treatment may be recommended.

Clomifene and metformin are the first line treatments, encouraging the ovaries to release an egg during ovulation each month.

These medications may be given either on their own or both at once.

Should the first line fertility treatment fail, gonadotrophins may be considered.

These do however posess a risk because they can over-stimulate the ovaries, leading to multiple pregnancies.

Abnormal hair growth or loss may be a symptom of PCOS.

To control this, a variety of medications can be used, such as: combined oral contraceptives, spironolactone, flutamide, cyproterone acetate and finasteride.

These medications block the over-expression of the male hormone testosterone.

If facial hair growth is a problem, a cream containing eflornithine can slow it down and improve the situation.

It does not actually remove the hair, so waxing or hair removal cream will be also required.

A cholesterol reducing medication, statins, may be helpful if you have high cholesterol in the blood due to PCOS.

Ovarian Cyst Prevention

There is no definitive way to prevent cysts growing on the ovaries, only things that may help identify the problem earlier if it does occur.

Having regular pelvic examinations ensures that any changes within the ovaries are identified as soon as possible.

Keeping good records of your menstrual cycle is highly recommended so you can document whether there have been any changes or irregularities that could indicate ovarian cysts.

Due to the link between progesterone only contraception and ovarian cysts, your doctor may recommend you switch to an oral contraception to reduce the likelihood of them developing in the future.

Ovarian Cyst Statistics & Facts

Ovarian cysts that cause symptoms are much less common, affecting only 1 in every 25 women at some point in their life.

Ovarian cysts can occur in any women who still have monthly periods (from puberty through to the menopause).

Approximately 1 in 5 women who have entered the menopause will have one or more ovarian cysts.

Ovarian Cyst Treatment Remedies plus

The contents of this app are provided for educational purposes only and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. The information provided should not be considered as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor or other healthcare professional.

What are Ovarian Cysts?

An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary.

Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst.

Such cysts range in size from as small as a pea to larger than an orange.

Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature and harmless.

A cyst isn’t necessarily a tumor, but if it does become a tumor then it may be malignant or benign.

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

In the majority of cases, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms and most women don’t even know that they have them.

Periods may become heavier, lighter or more irregular than normal.

Having ovarian cysts may cause feelings of bloating and fullness.

Sometimes, ovarian cysts can increase the frequency of urination.

Cysts may cause pain in the pelvic region. This pain can range from a dull sensation (associated with large cysts) to a sharp and sudden pain (caused by rupture of a cyst).

Ovarian Cyst Causes

There is not always an obvious reason why a lady will develop ovarian cysts once they have started monthly periods.

A follicular cyst is the most common in occurrence and originates from the growth of a follicle.

Follicles are a normal part of reproduction, but become pathological when it grows larger than normal.

Some of the hormones administered in the treatment of infertility can trigger functional cyst development in the ovaries.

If you are being treated with tamoxifen, a common treatment given to women with breast cancer, cysts may develop but they are also likely to resolve without any intervention once treatment has finished.

Ovarian Cyst Treatment

The vast majority of ovarian cysts disappear without the need for treatment.

If an ovarian cyst does require treatment, its size and appearance will be taking into account when selecting the best course of action.

A doctor must document the symptoms presented within the patient with a cyst, as they can affect the most appropriate form of treatment to take.

If a cyst is causing symptoms, then these tend to also be good candidates for surgery.

Removal of a cyst reduces the chance it will become cancerous later down the road.

pub 48 Diagnosing and Treating

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